מסוק H-3 Kolibri פותח בהולנד בשנות ה-50 על-יד חברת Nederlandse Helikopter Industrie.
The H-3 was a two seat general purpose helicopter. It has a duraluminium tube superstructure, an open cockpit and an undergear of metal skids. The design is distinctive because it is ramjet powered. Two ramjets, one at the tip of each rotor blade, power the helicopter. The small tail rotor is powered by the motion of the main rotor. The ramjets could run at any given fuel, which gave the helicopter a certain versatility.
The ramjets made a complex engine and gear box unnecessary. Kromhout designed and built the ramjets. Each engine generated 20 kg thrust. The last models had an improved engine, built by Aviolanda, generating 23 kg thrust.
In order to start the ramjets, a small 2 hp auxiliary power unit set the main rotor in motion. At a rotor-speed of 70 rpm, the ramjets were to be ignited.
Variants with ski’s, floating devices and medical evacuation stretchers were developed and tested, but these versions were never produced. A version as crop duster was developed, and in due time, the H-3 was mainly marketed as crop dusting helicopter.
The H-3 was assembled at Aviolanda. Subassembly took place at Aviolanda which built the fuselage and at Kromhout which built the engines. Fokker, a subcontractor to NHI, built the rotorblades. Final assembly took place at the newly opened Rotterdam Airport.
The initial production run counted ten helicopters of which the first three were used for development, testing and airworthiness tests. The second production run of ten helicopters was undertaken by Aviolanda after Kromhout left the joint venture. This second production run was to be equipped with an uprated ramjet. It is unsure whether the improved ramjet was ever produced.
Although the H-3 was considered to be technical success, it never was a commercial success. Despite its low acquisition price, the project became a failure. Several factors attributed to this failure. Firstly, the Hiller H-23 Raven was provided to the Royal Netherlands Air Force by the United States free of charge, under the Mutual Defense Assistance Pact (MDAP). Secondly, NHI's two most important designers, Jan M. Drees and Gerard F. Verhage, left the company, which never recovered. Thirdly, the ramjets, at the tips of the rotorblades, required a great deal of development to make them acceptable for production, with potential buyers regarding the ramjets as unsafe. Fourthly, the extraordinary fuel consumption of the two ramjets made the helicopter uneconomical to operate, flight time and flight range were quite limited making the helicopter unattractive for commercial or military use.
ייצור המסוק נמשך שנה (1958-1959) סך הכל יוצרו תשעה מסוקים מדגם H-3 במפעל שבשדה התעופה ב-Rotterdam כאשר Kromhout עדיין שותף בחברה.
לאחר פרישתו יוצרו שני מסוקים נוספים על-ידי חברת Aviolanda במפעל שב-Papendrecht.
המסוקים יוצאו לישראל, גרמניה, בריטניה, ואל גינאה החדשה. מסוקים אחדים נותרו בהולנד.
- כיום ידוע על שני מסוקים ששרדו את השרות. שני המסוקים, מדגם H-2 ו-H-3 מוצגים במוזיאון Aviodrome סמוך לשדה התעופה סכיפהול, אמסטרדם.
Data from Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1961–621
Length: 4.32 m (14 ft 2 in)
- גובה: 2.75 מ'
- משקל (ריק): 276 ק"ג
- Gross weight: 650 kg
- משקל המראה מירבי: 700 ק"ג
- קיבולת דלק: 400 ליטר
- מנועים: 2 מדגם NHI TJ-5 מגח סילון
- קוטר רוטור ראשי 9.95 מ'
- שטח דיסקה: 79.2 m2
- מהירות מירבית: 116 קמ"ש
- מהירות שיוט: 100 קמ"ש
- טווח: 75 ק"מ
- שהייה: 65 דקות
- תקרת שרות: 1,600 מ' (5,249 רגל)
- שיעור נסיקה: 3.5 מ'/שנייה